பிராத்தனை | கோடிட்ட இடங்களை நிரப்புதல் – சுமதி ராம்.

பிராத்தனை
—————
ஒரு நாளும் பள்ளி பேருந்தில்
ஏற்றி விடாத
அப்பா வாய்க்கப்பட்ட மகள்,
பார்த்து விடக்கூடாது,
பேருந்திற்காக காத்திருக்கும்
தன் மகளின் பள்ளி சீருடையை
சரி செய்து கொண்டிருக்கும்
ஏதோ ஒரு அப்பாவை.

– சுமதி ராம்.

 

Translation :

Title : Entreaty

A girl, whose father has never sent her in a school bus,
Should not see, a father who lovingly adjusts his daughters uniform,
while waiting for her school bus.

This is a poem by Sumathi Ram, Director Ram‘s Wife in her Poetry collection titled “Koditta Idangalai Niraputhal“.

Building Busybox to get root file system to Linux kernel

Previously, we have built linux kernel, Qemu and booted them using qemu.

But, in previous attempts, we loaded a simple hello world program in the kernel.

Now, we can try to create a further more improved linux system.

For that, we need to get a Root FileSystem.

Here is a explanation on what is a Root File System.

So, we need a set of utilities according to our need to run using the linux kernel.

To create all these utilities, it will take certain effort. To make it simple, we can use a project called,

BusyBox – The Swiss Army Knife of Embedded Linux

Busybox, is a set of utilities, compiled into a single executable and shown as multiple executable’s are available, by creating soft links with different names.

TODO : Here is a example of how it can be achieved.

Creating Busybox based Root FS.

Here is an overview of what we are going to do.

  1. Download the busybox source.
  2. Configure
  3. Build
  4. Create Root File System image
  5. Load using Qemu.

Here, its detailed.

1) Download the busybox source.

Busybox source can be downloaded from busybox FTP site, here.

mkdir src;
cd src;
wget -c http://www.busybox.net/downloads/busybox-1.21.0.tar.bz2
tar -xf busybox-1.21.0.tar.bz2
cd busybox-1.21.0;

2) Configure busybox

BusyBox has menu based configuration. Any ways, to make it simpler to configure, busybox provides a set of configurations, as below.

make target Description
help Show the complete list of make options
defconfig Enable a default (generic) configuration
allnoconfig Disable all applications (empty configuration)
allyesconfig Enable all applications (complete configuration)
allbareconfig Enable all applications, but no subfeatures
config Text-based configurator
menuconfig N-curses (menu-based) configurator
all Build the BusyBox binary and documentation (./docs)
install Build and make it ready to install at INSTALL PREFIX directory (./_install)
busybox Build the BusyBox binary
clean Clean the source tree
distclean Completely clean the source tree
sizes Emit the text/data sizes of the enabled applications

Out of these, we are going to use, defconfig.

export ARCH=arm;
export CROSS_COMPILE=arm-none-linux-gnueabi-;
make defconfig;

Now, we need to customize this busybox, so that we can run it along with linux kernel as individual.

Build busybox as a static library, as we wont have libc in the linux kernel we are booting.

This can be done by following.

make menuconfig
# Enable   Busybox Settings--->Build Options---> [*] Build BusyBox as a static binary (no shared libs)

3) Build busybox

Now, we can build the busybox, using make install command

make -j4 install

Now,after build, we would have got the busybox install directory at busyboz-1.21.0/_install/

[Update] Note : If the build fails with error as below, Source

networking/lib.a(inetd.o): In function `register_rpc':
inetd.c:(.text.register_rpc+0x2c): undefined reference to `pmap_unset'
inetd.c:(.text.register_rpc+0x42): undefined reference to `pmap_set'
networking/lib.a(inetd.o): In function `prepare_socket_fd':
inetd.c:(.text.prepare_socket_fd+0x52): undefined reference to
`bindresvport'
collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status
make: *** [busybox_unstripped] Error 1

Disable RPC support as below

Via menuconfig:
 Networking Utilities  --->
   []   Support RPC services

4) Create Root Filesystem image.

[TODO] As we have seen, initramfs supports newc file format. We are going to create a cpio archive to hold the root filesystem.

$ mkdir ../init/
$ cd _install;
$ find . | cpio -o --format=newc > ../../init/rootfs.img
$ cd ../../init;
$ file rootfs.img
   ASCII cpio archive (SVR4 with no CRC)
$ cd ../

5) Booting using initramfs we have built.

Now, we have the kernel built previously, rootfs that we have built now.

Lets boot it using qemu

$ qemu-system-arm -M versatilepb -kernel zImage -initrd init/rootfs.img -append "root=/dev/ram rdinit=/bin/sh"

The system would have booted and the shell prompt would be shown.
You can try ls on this to find something like this..

/ # ls
bin    dev    linuxrc    root    sbin    usr
/ #

Voila!! Very basic utility is working!!

Few Thirukural That I Like

1. On conviction:
எண்ணித் துணிகக் கருமம் துணிந்தபின்
எண்ணுவம் என்பது இழுக்கு
(enni thuniga karumam thuninthapin
ennuvam enbathu izhukku)

Meaning: “Think wisely before you exercise an action. Having done so however,
never look back and regret. That would be a shame”. The kural at the same time, talks about both ‘thoughtfulness’ before acting, and conviction/sticking to decisions/actions once they are committed.

2. On knowledge:
செவிக் குணவில்லாத போது சிறிது
வயிற்றுக்கும் ஈயப் படும்
(sevikku unavillatha podhu siridhu
vayirrukkum eeya padum)

Meaning: It literally means, food for the stomach can follow when there is no food for the ears. The implied meaning is that, the fruit/food of knowledge is far more needed/superior to food for the body, and one should hence actively seek it.

3. On speech:
இனிய உளவாக இன்னாத கூறல்
கனியிருப்ப காய்கவர்ந் தற்று
(iniya ulavaaga innaatha kooral
kani iruppa kaai kavarnthattru)

Meaning: Uttering foul, while there are the sweetest of words, is like going for the unripe fruits while there are a lot of ripe ones.

4. On help/charity:
காலத்தினார் செய்த உதவி சிறிதெனினும்
ஞாலத்தின் மாணப் பெரிது
(kaalathinaar seytha uthavi sirithu eninum
gnaalathin maanap perithu)

Meaning: Although an act of help done timely, might be small in nature, it is truly larger than the world itself.

5. On learning:
தொட்டனைத் தூறும் மனற்கேணி மாந்தர்க்கு
கற்றனைத் தூறும் அறிவு
(thottanaithu oorum manarkaeni maantharku
kattraianthu oorum arivu)

Meaning: Just as the well that secretes more and more water, the deeper you dig, knowledge only grows more and more, the more you learn.

6. On patience:
அகழ்வாரைத் தாங்கும் நிலம்போலத் தன்னை
இகழ்வாரைப் பொருத்தல் தலை
(aghazhvaarai thaangum nilam pola thannai
ighazhvaarai poruthal thalai)

Meaning: Just as the earth that bears the man who tills and digs it, to bear those who speak ill of them, is a quality of the highest respect.

7. On wisdom:
ஈன்றப் பொழுதிற் பெரிதுவக்கும் தன்மகனைச்
சான்றோன் எனக்கேட்ட தாய்
(eendra pozhuthir perithuvakkum than maganai
saandron ena kaetta thaai)

Meaning: Even more than the time when she gave birth, a mother feels her greatest joy when she hears others refer to her son as a wise learned one.

Impact of rebuke or a tongue-lash
தீயினாற் சுட்டபுண் உள்ளாறும் ஆறாதே
நாவினாற் சுட்ட வடு.
(theeyinaar suttapun ullaarum aaraadhey
naavinaal sutta vadu)

The fire-burnt wound heals inside but
the tongue-burnt wound leaves an indelible scar.
Requiting vice
இன்னாசெய் தாரை ஒறுத்தல் அவர்நாண
நன்னயம் செய்து விடல்.
(inna seidhaarai oruthal avar naana
nannayam seidhuvidal)

To reprove a harm-doer, put him to shame
by doing a good deed in return.
Spontaneity of friendship
உடுக்கை இழந்தவன் கைபோலே ஆங்கே
இடுக்கண் களைவதாம் நட்பு.
(udukkai izhandhavann kaipoley aange
idukkan kalaivadhaam natpu)

Friendship hastens to give a hand, like
the hand that hastens to picking up dress that slips.
Character of wisdom and enquiry
எப்பொருள் யார்யார்வாய்க் கேட்பினும் அப்பொருள்
மெய்ப்பொருள் காண்ப தறிவு.
(epporul yaaryaarvaai ketpinum apporul
meipporul kaanbadh(u) arivu)

From whomsoever one hears anything,
it is wisdom to understand the true import of it.

ஏதிலார் குற்றம்போல் தங்குற்றங் காண்கிற்பின்
தீதுண்டோ மன்னும் உயிர்க்கு.

Translation:
If each his own, as neighbours’ faults would scan,
Could any evil hap to living man?

(If they observed their own faults as they observe the faults of others, would any evil happen to men?)

அறிவிலார் தாந்தம்மைப் பீழிக்கும் பீழை
செறுவார்க்கும் செய்தல் அரிது.

Meaning:
எதிரிகளால்கூட வழங்க முடியாத வேதனையை, அறிவில்லாதவர்கள் தங்களுக்குத் தாங்களே வழங்கிக் கொள்வார்கள்.

Meaning : The suffering that fools inflict upon themselves is hardly possible even their worst enemies do upon them.

Indians in Top positions of The Google team

Today, I was surprised to see these number of indian fellows at THE Google Exective Officers List. [retrived on May 8, 2013]

Larry page
Sergey Brin
Eric Schmidt
David C. Drummond
Patrick Pichette
Nikesh Arora

And few in Senior Leadership..
Amit Singhal
Sridhar Ramaswamy
Sundar Pichai
Vic Gundotra

Some more geeks..

The founder of Google News : Krishna Bharat

If – Rudyar Kipling

If you can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you;
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you,
But make allowance for their doubting too:
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or, being lied about, don’t deal in lies,
Or being hated don’t give way to hating,
And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise;

If you can dream—and not make dreams your master;
If you can think—and not make thoughts your aim,
If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster
And treat those two impostors just the same:.
If you can bear to hear the truth you’ve spoken
Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,
Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken,
And stoop and build’em up with worn-out tools;

If you can make one heap of all your winnings
And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss,
And lose, and start again at your beginnings,
And never breathe a word about your loss:
If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew
To serve your turn long after they are gone,
And so hold on when there is nothing in you
Except the Will which says to them: “Hold on!”

If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue,
Or walk with Kings—nor lose the common touch,
If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you,
If all men count with you, but none too much:
If you can fill the unforgiving minute
With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run,
Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it,
And—which is more—you’ll be a Man, my son!

Rudyard Kipling

What are the best ways to deal with frustration?

Music. Sleep. Long walk all alone. A new trip to a place you love. Get yourself busy.

Music : have a good collection of inspiring and good music which you love and relevent to you. It always helps and brings you up from any depression. I had experuenced this many times.

Sleep : most of our thoughts will get refined once we sleep. Your mind will get reduced on load. Leave it free for sometime. You will know the change. But I feel very dificult to get sleep at times.

Long walk : You will see a lot of things around you. So lovely. Si bad. So awesome. It will give you lot of relaxation. And one more important thing is, you will get lot of time!

Get yourself busy: Ultimate. Will make you grow. Your other pains jn work wont be a matter at this time. It will give you a better feeling for sure. I will be at my office, working, when I feel bad.

The Tata Fact’s – What they have given?

One of my friend have Written and shared this on Facebook.

At first I too thought, not to waste time reading this, But Its far more valuable than what I had thought.

I didnt knew most of these facts before 😦 Thought many of us would not have known these.

So, Im sharing this with you, as its written on the link below, with just few formatting for easy read.

Please, spend some time to read this.

Its Money or Knowledge or Love or what ever it is.
We are respected for what we give. Not for what we have.

Respect is earned! And such a respect will never fade away.

https://www.facebook.com/notes/arvind-devaraj/tata-factbook-for-facebook-generation/274731799207898

Thanks Arvind!

1) EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

These are the lesser known facts about Tata I came to know very recently . I wrote this note as I was pained to see some people linking all wealthy people with corruption. While facts about other great people are widely available on web, facts about Tata aren’t known much. Some information is present on books. Maybe Tatas deliberately haven’t focussed much on marketing their own goodness. Of late, there are ads like ‘Values stronger than steel’ from Tata. Compared to the magnum opus of their work, their publicity pales in comparison.

Even as a young kid, I have heard Tata’s name. “Tata Birla” is a term synonymous with rich. I knew about Tata as another business man who sought to become rich and succeeded. But there is much more….

2) PROFILES

(Jamshetji) J.N.Tata ( 1839 – 1904 )

Dorab Tata / Ratan Tata ( early 1900s )

JRD Tata ( 1930s till 1990s)

Ratan Tata ( 1990s – present )

3) LEGACY – SYNOPSIS

“Tatas represent the spirit of adventure,” – Mahatma Gandhi

J.N.Tata is the founder of the Tata empire . In the book ‘100 Great Modern Lives’ by John Canning only two Indians feature – Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and Jamsetji Tata. The chapter on Jamsetji Tata concludes with the paragraph: ‘Probably no other family have ever contributed as much in the way of wise guidance, industrial development and advancing philanthropy to any country as the Tatas have to India, both before and since independence (1947).’

J.N.Tata’s sons Dorab and Ratan Tata would carry the legacy of J.N.Tata. Ratan Tata financially supported a then unknown lawyer in South Africa

protesting against British. The lawyer said during a meeting “We have got so much contributions from Tata and we have to work hard to justify that”.

That lawyer was Gandhiji. When Godrej asked for blessing from Gandhi to start a new product – Gandhi light heartedly replied – “If you are going to compete against my good brother Tata I wont be able to bless that”

After Dorab/Ratan , JRD Tata becomes chairman. JRD Tata was instrumental in giving wings to India by building Tata Airlines, which ultimately became Air India .Kalpana Chawla, the Indian-born astronaut cited JRD and his pioneering airmail flights as her inspiration for taking up aeronautics. In 1992, because of his selfless humanitarian endeavors, JRD Tata was awarded India’s highest civilian honor, the Bharat Ratna – rare for a businessman to get in the License Raj.

After JRD Tata, Ratan Tata becomes chairman in 1992.

4) HISTORY

COTTON MILLS

It was around 1870s. JN Tata purchases a small cotton mill. Over the next 20 years he made it successful one. He was a running a successful business in India. The most significant thing is the way he treated his employees – sick leaves / hospital facilities / school for children / Provident Fund / Life Insurance/ Room conditioners to prevent dust. All these seems trivial in today’s world. But in the industrial age, even workers in England worked in very inhuman conditions and facilities like insurance were unheard of. ( the condition of workers in that era is captured well in many of Charles Dicken’s novels ).

It was 1890 – JN Tata was fifty years of age and a reputed businessman employing thousands of people . The story till now alone would suffice to have his mark in India’s history. But still more to come…

Tata was on a sea voyage where he me Swami Vivekananda. Swami tells him that the future of India is in young people – especially young people working in science and research have to ability to rewrite the history of nation. The term ‘Science’ for many businessmen may not mean much… but Tata was not a mere businessman. This meeting with Swami Vivekanand would turn important and establish basis for scientific research in India.

5) TAJ HOTEL

when British ruled us, Indians were not allowed to enter star hotels. Tata was determined to build a fine hotel where Indians wouldnot be treated as an outcaste and thus Taj Hotel was born

6) TATA STEEL

“The nation that has the steel has the gold” – these were the last words in a talk attended by Tata in England given by an eminent scholar. These words were ringing in Tata’s mind for next decade of his life. JN Tata would lay the foundation of steel empire. He died in 1904, but his dream would be carried forward by his sons Dorab and Ratan. He had left detailed instructions about the steel plant. “We are not just building factories…we are building cities around a factory….we are enriching lives…in the factory complex – make sure you allocate space for schools / day care centres / hosptials / places of worship – temples, mosques, churches ”

The British were skeptical of Tata’s ability to produce steel. “The Indians are making steel? The Indians can’t run a shop properly” The Governor said “Why I offer to eat every pound of steel Tatas produce” Later the Tata steel plant began to produce successfully . Dorab Tata said if the Governor had kept his words , he would have a slight indigestion. The British would later order steel from Tata during the World war as Tata steel was more robust in making bullet proof shields in vehicles. That time the steel was produced in a small village in Bihar called Sakshi. Later the city would be renamed in honor of Jamshedji Tata as Jamshedpur

At Tata Steel, not only steel but also men were forged in Jamshedpur. That’s why it’s a place where India is still shining, it’s a place where the nation of India was transformed and it’s a place that was selected as a UN Global Compact City because of the quality of life, conditions of sanitation,roads and welfare that were offered by Tata Steel

7) INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE

Swami Vivekananda’s meeting was still on the mind of Tata. Tata wanted to establish an institute of higher learning focussed on research. Unlike setting up hotels or industry, he needed Governments permission for setting up educational institute. The man in power and who had to give permission was Lord Curzon ( the man who partitioned Bengal ) . When he told Curzon of his plan , Curzon replied- You mean the Indian students have the ability to undertake scientific research – Where will you find teachers for such advanced courses and where will you find students who can grasp such concepts…And what will students do with such advanced degrees if they are anyway going to work as a clerk after completion . In short “Surely, You are joking Mr.Tata”. After the meeting with Curzon, every one in Tata’s team was heart broken. They were cursing Curzon .. Tata replied to them “Lets wait for Curzon’s mind to change – there must be some good in him somewhere”

The permission to setup the institute came years after JN Tatas death. JN Tata had instructed his sons to carry on the struggle of establishing the institute after his death.. A newspaper in US wrote “The amount millions is more than enough to establish an university in US and in a country like India it is a great amount”.

J.N.Tata gave one third of his wealth to establish IISc. He had 2 sons Dorab and Ratan, so many consider that he considered IISc to be his another child. Originally the institute was to be setup in Bombay. The nobel prize winning scientist Ramsey was asked to tour India to find the best place conducive to research. He suggested Bangalore, but Tata favored Bombay. Finally, the Maharaja of Mysore offered vast amount of lands and persuaded Tata to setup the institute at Bangalore.

8) AVIATION

JRD Tata was the first Indian to have flying license.His license reads #1. His interest in aviation caused him to start Air India and Indian Airlines. The Maharaja symbol of these airlines was his conception. Air India was providing the finest service in aviation at moderate rates until its take over by Government.

9) SCHOLARSHIPS

Tatas provide scholarship for people who have potential , but economic condition prevent them continuing their studies. One such candidate applied to Tata for scholarship. Though his love was political science, he chose to enroll in English literatue due to financial constraints . After analyzing the applicant, the Tatas persuaded him to study political science offering to pay the entire tuition fees and provide stipend for expenses also. This incident was later narrated by K.R.Narayanan who became President of India. If not for the scholarship, K.R.Narayanan might have become professor in English literature.

Every year thousands of people apply for Tata scholarship, even among wealthy people. There is a pride in being a Tata Scholar. There are people like Raja Ramanna ( space scientists) and many more who benefited from it.

In 1912, the London School of Economics established the Ratan Tata Department. The following year it advertised for a position of a lecturer in that department for which two people applied. One was a young man called Clement Atlee, who after careful consideration was selected for this position. About 32-years later Atlee became the Prime Minister of Britain. Interesting enough that it was under his government that India was granted independence in 1947.

10) INSTITUTES

Tata Memorial hospital – Focuses on Cancer research . Tatas lost few of their family members to cancer and they are supporting research

TIFR ( Tata institute of fundamental research ) – from wikipedia

“In 1944, Dr. Homi J. Bhabha, known for his role in the development of the Indian atomic energy program, wrote to Sir Dorabji Tata Trust requesting financial assistance to set up a scientific research institute.[2] With support from J. R. D. Tata, then chairman of the Tata Group, TIFR was founded on 1 June 1945, and Homi Bhabha was appointed its first director”

NCPA- National center for performing arts

TISS – Tata institute of social sciences

11) CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility)

from wikipedia

“In general, about 66% of the profits of Tata Group go to charity and executives made it clear that they have no intention of leaving control to Wall Street.[21] The charitable trusts of Tata Group fund a variety of projects, for example the Tata Swach and the TCS project. They founded and still support such cherished institutions as the Indian Institute of Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, the National Centre for the Performing Arts and the Tata Memorial Hospital. Each Tata Group company channels more than 4 percent of its operating income to the trusts and every generation of Tata family members has left a larger portion of its profit to them. This makes the Tata family evidently less wealthy as individuals than other Indian family-owned companies.[19]”

12) FRIENDS

Sudha was studying in IISc and it was placement season. There was a notice ‘Tata group is hiring’. Unfortunately there was a P.S stating “Only male candidates can apply’ . Sudha was very angry on seeing this – what qualification preclude me from applying to this job. She wrote an angry letter to JRD Tata venting out her anger – though she never expected any reply. The next day, she was called to meet JRD Tata and he explained that the job required physical endurance and thats why women were dissuaded from that job. However Tata offered Sudha that position

Later Sudha would leave Tata group to start Infosys with her husband Narayana Murthy. she said to Tata “Let me try how things work out in Infosys”, Tata replied “There is no try…I know you and Murthy very well, you will definitely succeed ”

13) GROUPS

TCS with 200,000 employees is one of largest private sector employers. TRDDC was the research wing of TCS. One of its products ‘Tata swach’ aim to provide low cost water purifier. They diversified into many more areas

and have become brands in their own right like Voltas, Tanishq , Titan, Star bazaar, Tetley. Lakme was established when Nehru banned import of cosmetics and suggested to Tata that we need Indian products.

13) WALL

“Acquried Jaguar LandRover” – million likes

“Acquired Corus ” – million likes

The acquired companies are great European companies. Only few decades back, getting employed in an European company was a dream come true . Owning an European company was far from our dreams.

14) POKES

Air India and Indian Airlines were taken over by the Government when they nationalized Airlines. JRD Tata was stripped of his chairman position and this was not even informed to him. Only the succeeding chairman called him on phone and informed that he is taking over. Many other constraints during the license raj as the general philosophy of the govt was that businessmen are evil people.

15) NETWORK

The Tatas are of Parsi origin – descend from a group of Zoroastrians of Iran who immigrated to India during an invasion in 10th century. The then Gujarat king offered home for them. The Parsis would become prominent – Pherozeshah Mehta, Dadabhai Naoroji, Bhikaiji Cama, Homi Bhaba, Homi Sethna, Godrej, Wadia, Shapoorji Pallonji, Zubin Metha, Field Marshal Manekshaw. Thanks to that King for allowing the Parsis. The parsi belief is ‘HUMATA HUKTA HAVARASHTA’- meaning good thoughts, words, deeds. Think about it – they are technically foreigners. And they have done greater good than many politicans with ancestral origins in India.

15) REFERENCES

R.M.Lala’s books on Tata especially “For the love of India”. Rare old books in IISc Library . Not much is available on net. (once was excited to find a promising youtube video – later it was on Tata Young singing Dhoom Dhoom….)

Before coming to IISc , I knew Tata only as a businessman. In IISc, the name of Tata was omnipresent – Tata Auditorium, Tata Library. Tata is the chairman of the IISc trustees. IISc itself is known only as Tata institute in bangalore. I first thought why should a government institute like IISc have to associate so much with Tata, I also thought such associations might affect the autonomy of the institute. Later I realized the very existence of the institute owes to legacy of Tata.

And I have already searched for this book, [http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/2435387.100_Great_Modern_Lives]
but unluckily, i could get this. If anyone have it or any pointers, please let me know.

Link to same text as a PDF. Not much attractively formatted. But its easy to read and share.Tata